This documentation is based on KEPLER Manual Version 1 of May 1991. This manual comprises also all the updates to KEPLER since that date: new parameters, output and input files, and new and modified code capabilities.

Histroric Preface

KEPLER is a general purpose stellar evolution/explosion code that incorporates implicit hydrodynamics and a detailed treatment of nuclear burning processes. It has been used to study the complete evolution of massive and supermassive stars, all major classes of supernovae, hydrostatic and explosive nucleosynthesis, and x- and gamma-ray bursts on neutron stars and white dwarfs. Many aspects of the physics it currently includes has been briefly summarized in [WZW78], [WWF83], and many other papers describing the results of its calculations. Additional documentation is in progress. KEPLER does not currently contain detailed models of neutrino transport and the equation of state of hot matter near nuclear density, but it has the capability to be linked to codes (such as that of Wilson et. al.) that do or to treat these processes in parameterized form.

After more a decade of specialized residence on the CDC 7600, a general (almost standard FORTRAN) version of KEPLER has been developed for use on UNIX super-minicomputers with X-Window graphics (such as P Group’s 4D/240VGX computer, leonardo), and in a more limited form on CRAY computers. This new version of KEPLER includes calculations of detailed isotopic nucleosynthesis (“BURN co-processing”), extensive graphics, interactive post-processing, updated nuclear reaction rates, and many other new and/or improved edit and physics capabilities.

The current UNIX version of KEPLER on which this manual is based is kepler.1may91.

This documentation includes a discussion of the input files (“generators”) needed for KEPLER, of the user-changeable KEPLER parameters, how to run a KEPLER problem and also the interactive keyboard commands that are available for editing and job-control.

Also useful is list of the zonal edit variables that may be edited, graphed, or stored in post-processor dumps and a lists of both the user-unchangeable edit (‘Q’) parameters and the non-zonal, time-dependent (“time-edit”) variables, which can be graphed vs. time, and a brief description of the form of some of the (less obvious) edits that KEPLER produces.


Terminal commands and input file cards are listed according to the following conventions:


Here the words in capital italics are to be replaced by specific input values, and words in square brackets are optional parameters. Usually a specific example is given directly below the command or card to clarify the input format.

Format Convetions




literal input card/command


command variable - replace by actual value


KEPLER varibale, parameter, or subroutine



All communication with the computer must currently be made in lower case and character strings must not be enclosed in quotes except where explicitly stated.